June 30, 2022

History of Title IX: From Billie Jean King to USWNT, a look at key events 50 years after passage of landmark civil rights law

Thursday marks 50 years since Title IX was signed into law by President Richard Nixon.

The measure barred discrimination towards girls when it got here to the overwhelming majority of academic packages that obtain federal help.

It has a broad and extraordinary affect on all the things from the security of school campuses to athletics to schooling at public faculties. The progress, nonetheless, has been halting at occasions.

Right here is a timeline of key events earlier than, throughout and after the 1972 passage of the landmark U.S. law:

1836: Georgia Feminine Faculty is the primary girls’s school to open within the U.S.

1917: Jeannette Rankin of Montana turns into the primary lady elected to Congress.

1920: U.S. girls achieve the proper to vote.

1936: A federal appeals court docket successfully says docs can prescribe girls contraception.

1947: The primary Truman Fee report pushes for extra equal entry to larger schooling, together with ending race and non secular discrimination.

1953: Toni Stone turns into the primary lady to recurrently play skilled baseball (Negro Leagues).

SEE ALSO: What’s Title IX?

1954: U.S. Supreme Court docket guidelines “separate educational facilities are inherently unequal” in landmark Brown v. Board of Training of Topeka choice.

1960: Wilma Rudolph turns into the primary American lady to win three gold medals in an Olympics. The star Black sprinter turns into a outstanding advocate for civil rights.

1963: The Fee on the Standing of Ladies, headed by Eleanor Roosevelt, finds widespread discrimination towards girls within the U.S. and urges federal courts that “the principle of equality become firmly established in constitutional doctrine.” Congress passes the Equal Pay Act.

1964: The Civil Rights Act consists of intercourse as one of the issues that employers cannot discriminate towards. It additionally establishes the Equal Employment Alternative Fee. Patsy Mink of Hawaii turns into the primary lady of colour elected to the U.S. Home; she later co-authors Title IX, the Early Childhood Training Act and the Ladies’s Academic Equality Act.

1965: The Elementary and Secondary Training Act provides federal funding to Ok-12 faculties with low-income pupil populations. President Lyndon Johnson additionally indicators the Larger Training Act of 1965 that offers school college students entry to loans, grants and different packages.

1966: The Nationwide Group for Ladies is established, calling for ladies to have “full participation in the mainstream of American society … in truly equal partnership with men.”

1967: Aretha Franklin covers Otis Redding’s 1965 hit, (*50*) and it rapidly turns into a feminist anthem.

1969: New York Democrat Shirley Chisholm turns into the primary Black lady in Congress. She later turns into the primary lady to search nomination for president.

1971: The Affiliation for Intercollegiate Athletics for Ladies (AIAW) is based to govern collegiate girls’s athletics and administer nationwide championships.

1972: Congress passes Title IX, which is signed into law by President Richard Nixon. Title IX states: “No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.” Congress additionally passes the Equal Rights Modification, nevertheless it by no means will get approval from the 38 states wanted to develop into law.

1973: The Supreme Court docket points its Roe v. Wade opinion establishing the proper to an abortion. Billie Jean King beats Bobby Riggs in straight units within the “The Battle of the Sexes” tennis exhibition match.

1974: The Ladies’s Academic Fairness Act gives grants and contracts to assist with “nonsexist curricula,” in addition to to assist establishments meet Title IX necessities.

1975: President Gerald Ford indicators Title IX athletics laws, which provides athletic departments up to three years to implement, after noting “it was the intent of Congress under any reason of interpretation to include athletics.”

1976: NCAA challenges the legality of Title IX concerning athletics in a lawsuit that’s dismissed two years later.

1977: Three feminine college students at Yale, two graduates and a male school member develop into the primary to sue over sexual harassment beneath Title IX (Alexander v. Yale). It could fail on enchantment.

1979: Ann Meyers turns into the primary lady to signal an NBA contract (Indiana Pacers, $500,000). She had been the primary lady to obtain a UCLA basketball scholarship.

1979: U.S. officers enforce the necessary three-prong check for Title IX compliance when it comes to athletics.

1980: Title IX oversight is given to the Workplace of Civil Rights within the Training Division.

1981: Sandra Day O’Connor turns into the primary lady appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court docket.

1982: Louisiana Tech beats Cheyney State for the primary NCAA girls’s basketball title. Two months later, the AIAW folds, placing prime girls’s collegiate sports activities absolutely beneath the NCAA umbrella. Cheryl Miller scores 105 factors in a highschool recreation to kick off one of the best careers in basketball historical past.

1984: Democrat Geraldine Ferraro turns into first lady to earn a vice presidential nomination from a main political celebration. The U.S. wins its first Olympic gold medal in girls’s basketball.

1987: Pat Summitt wins the primary of her eight girls’s basketball nationwide titles at Tennessee.

1988: Congress overrides President Ronald Reagan’s veto of the Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987, making it obligatory that Title IX apply to any faculty that receives federal cash.

1994: The Fairness in Athletics Disclosure Act is handed. Below Title IX, faculties with federal monetary help packages and athletics should present annual info concerning gender fairness, together with roster sizes and sure budgets.

1995: Connecticut wins the primary of its 11 nationwide titles beneath coach Geno Auriemma.

1996: Feminine athletes win a lawsuit and pressure Brown to restore funding for ladies’s gymnastics and volleyball after the saying the varsity violated Title IX when it turned each groups into donor-funded entities. The NBA clears the way in which for the Ladies’s Nationwide Basketball Affiliation to start play the next 12 months.

1999: Brandi Chastain’s penalty kick provides the US a win over China within the World Cup last, invigorating girls’s sports activities within the U.S.

2001: Ashley Martin turns into the primary lady to play and rating in a Division I soccer recreation as a placekicker for Jacksonville State.

2008: Danica Patrick wins the Japan 300 to develop into the primary feminine victor within the prime stage of American open-wheel racing.

2014: Becky Hammon turns into the primary full-time feminine assistant coach in NBA historical past.

2015: America’ 5-2 win over Japan within the Ladies’s World Cup last turns into essentially the most considered soccer recreation within the historical past of American tv.

2016: Citing Title IX, the Obama administration says transgender college students at public faculties must be allowed to use the lavatory or locker room that matches their gender identification, the steerage was rescinded by the Trump administration. Hillary Clinton turns into the primary lady to win a main celebration nomination for president.

2017: Serena Williams wins her twenty third Grand Slam title, second-most of all time.

2020: New Title IX amendments take impact, largely concerning sexual harassment.

2021: Report rips NCAA for failing to uphold its dedication to gender fairness by prioritizing its profitable Division I males’s basketball match “over everything else,” together with girls’s championship events.

2022: South Carolina’s Daybreak Staley turns into the primary Black Division I basketball coach, male or feminine, to win multiple nationwide championship. The U.S. girls’s nationwide soccer workforce reaches a milestone settlement to be paid equally to the lads’s nationwide workforce.

Watch Sofia Carson host “Our America: Fifty50,” an ABC Owned Tv Stations particular commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of Title IX, in your native ABC station (click on right here to test native listings) or wherever you stream: Fireplace TV, Android TV, Apple TV and Roku.